ltbr_424b2.htm

 

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)

Registration Statement No. 333-223674

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus Dated March 23, 2018) 

 

Lightbridge Corporation

Up to $13,500,000

Common Stock

 

We have entered into an At-the-Market Equity Offering Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated (the “Agent”), dated May 28, 2019, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, under this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $13,500,000 from time to time through the Agent, acting as agent.

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. The Agent is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

The Agent will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 4.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, the Agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agent with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “LTBR”. On May 24, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $0.815 per share.

 

The aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates, or public float, is approximately $40.6 million, based on approximately 36.5 million shares of outstanding common stock on May 20, 2019, of which approximately 0.2 million shares are held by affiliates, and a price of $1.12 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on May 23, 2019. Other than the shares of common stock offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement, we have not offered any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus supplement. In no event will we sell securities in public primary offerings on Form S-3 with a value exceeding more than one-third of our public float (as defined by General Instruction I.B.6) in any 12 calendar month period so long as our public float remains below $75 million.

 

_______________________________

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement and page 7 of the accompanying prospectus and the risks and uncertainties described in the documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference for certain risks and uncertainties relating to an investment in our common stock.

 

_______________________________

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

______________________________

 

 

    

 

This prospectus supplement is dated May 28, 2019.

 

 
 
 
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

S-ii

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

S-ii

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

 S-1

 

RISK FACTORS

 

S-3

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

S-4

 

MARKET FOR COMMON STOCK

 

S-4

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

S-4

 

DILUTION

 

S-4

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

S-5

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

S-10

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

S-11

 

EXPERTS

 

S-11

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

S-11

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

S-12

 

 

Prospectus

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

 

3

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

 

4

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

 

5

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

 

5

 

ABOUT LIGHTBRIDGE CORPORATION

 

 

6

 

RISK FACTORS

 

 

7

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

 

7

 

DILUTION

 

 

7

 

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

 

 

8

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

 

8

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

 

 

11

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

14

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

 

23

 

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

 

 

25

 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

 

26

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

 

27

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

 

29

 

EXPERTS

 

 

29

 

 

_______________________________

 

We have not, and the Agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus we prepare or authorize, and neither we nor the Agent take any responsibility for any other information that others may give you. This prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell, nor is it a solicitation of an offer to buy, the securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of those documents, or that the information contained in any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, you should carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-223674) that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and that was declared effective by the SEC on March 23, 2018. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts and units, of which this offering is a part.

 

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds, updates and changes information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which provides more general information about our common stock and other securities that do not pertain to this offering of common stock. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

References in this prospectus supplement to “Lightbridge,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our Company,” or “the Company” mean Lightbridge Corporation, a Nevada corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless we state otherwise or the context indicates otherwise.

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain or incorporate forward-looking statements within the meaning of section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements. We use words such as “believe”, “expect”, “anticipate”, “project”, “target”, “plan”, “optimistic”, “intend”, “aim”, “will”, or similar expressions which are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such statements include, among others, (1) those concerning market and business segment growth, demand and acceptance of our nuclear energy consulting services and nuclear fuel technology business, (2) any projections of sales, earnings, revenue, margins or other financial items, (3) any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations and the timing of the development of our nuclear fuel technology, (4) any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance, (5) uncertainties related to conducting business in foreign countries, (6) any statements about future financings and liquidity, and (7) all assumptions, expectations, predictions, intentions or beliefs about future events. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks, uncertainties as well as assumptions that if they were to ever materialize or prove incorrect, could cause the results of the Company to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties are set forth in Item 1A “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC and include but are not limited to:

   

 
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·our ability to commercialize our nuclear fuel technology, including risks related to the design and testing of nuclear fuel incorporating our technology,

 

 

 

 

·the realization of expected benefits from our joint venture with Framatome Inc. (Enfission, LLC) and our future collaboration with Framatome,

 

 

 

 

·our ability to attract new customers,

 

 

 

 

·our ability to employ and retain qualified employees and consultants that have experience in the nuclear industry,

 

 

 

 

·competition and competitive factors in the markets in which we compete,

 

 

 

 

·public perception of nuclear energy generally,

 

 

 

 

·changes in laws, rules and regulations governing our business,

 

 

 

 

·development and utilization of, and challenges to, our intellectual property, and

 

 

 

 

·potential and contingent liabilities.
 

The foregoing list of important factors is not intended to be and is not exhaustive. We base our forward-looking statements on our management’s beliefs and assumptions based on information available to our management at the time the statements are made, and our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made. Actual outcomes and results may differ materially from those expressed, implied or projected in such forward-looking statements and therefore you should not place undue reliance on them. Except as required under the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not have any intention or obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements after the distribution of this prospectus supplement, whether as a result of new information, future events, changes in assumptions or otherwise.

 

 
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information about us, this offering and selected information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and in the documents we incorporate by reference therein. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus supplement, and the accompanying prospectus, carefully, including the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement and page 7 of the accompanying prospectus, the “Risk Factors” section of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, the “Risk Factors” section of our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and our financial statements and the related notes and the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

 

About Lightbridge Corporation

 

We are a leading nuclear fuel technology company. Our goal is to produce the next generation of nuclear fuel that could significantly improve the economics, safety, and proliferation resistance of existing and new reactors, with a meaningful impact on addressing climate change and air pollution. We project that the world’s energy and climate needs can only be met if nuclear power’s share of the energy-generating mix grows substantially.

 

We currently conduct our fuel development activities principally through Enfission, LLC (“Enfission”), our 50/50 joint venture with Framatome Inc. (“Framatome”), which was formed on January 24, 2018, to develop, license, manufacture and sell nuclear fuel assemblies based on Lightbridge-designed metallic fuel technology and other advanced nuclear fuel intellectual property. Enfission serves as the exclusive vehicle through which the Company and Framatome are researching, developing, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing and will be using, marketing and selling nuclear fuel assemblies based on the Lightbridge metallic fuel technology comprising uranium-zirconium (U-ZR) multi-lobe, helically twisted fuel rods and associated manufacturing processes and other advanced nuclear fuel intellectual property contributed by both Lightbridge and Framatome within the operating domain. The operating domain of Enfission includes pressurized water reactors (excluding water-cooled water-moderated energetic reactor (Russion VVER) types) and boiling water reactors, which collectively constitute most of the power reactors in the world, as well as water-cooled small modular reactors and water-cooled research reactors. While we expect our focus to be on Enfission for the foreseeable future, Lightbridge maintains the rights to develop fuel for VVER reactors outside Enfission, and Lightbridge also maintains the right to develop fuel for pressurized heavy water reactors (including CANDU reactors) outside Enfission. In addition to distributions from Enfission based on our ownership interest in the joint venture, we anticipate receiving future licensing revenues in connection with sales by Enfission of nuclear fuel incorporating our intellectual property.

 

The address of our principal executive office is 11710 Plaza America Drive, Suite 2000, Reston, Virginia, 20190, and our telephone number is (571) 730-1200. We maintain a website at www.ltbridge.com that contains information about our Company, though no information contained on our website is part of this prospectus supplement. 

 

 

 

S-1

 
 

  

 

The Offering

 

Common stock offered

 

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $13,500,000. In no event will we sell securities in public primary offerings on Form S-3 with a value exceeding more than one-third of our “public float” (the market value of our common stock and any other equity securities that we may issue in the future that are held by non-affiliates) in any 12 calendar month period so long as our public float remains below $75 million.

 

 

Manner of offering

 

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on the Nasdaq Capital Market or other market for our common stock in the United States through our agent, Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-10 of this prospectus supplement.

 

 

Use of proceeds

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes. We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement for additional information.

 

 

Nasdaq Capital Market symbol

“LTBR”

 

 

Risk factors

 

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock, including the risk factors discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and our other filings with the SEC.

 

 
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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Prior to making a decision about investing in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risk factors described below and the risk factors discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our most recent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and our other filings with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently view as immaterial, may also impair our business. If any of the risks or uncertainties described in our SEC filings or this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any additional risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering, you may not agree with how we use the proceeds, and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.

 

Our management will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from any offering by us and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Accordingly, you will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that the proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us.

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per share of the common stock you purchase in the offering.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $0.815 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on May 24, 2019 for aggregate gross proceeds of $13,500,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $0.13 per share, representing the difference between our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options or warrants could result in further dilution of your investment. See the section below entitled “Dilution” for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by any investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by any investors in this offering.

 

 
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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $13,500,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes. The precise amount and timing of the application of such proceeds will depend upon our funding requirements and the availability and cost of other capital. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Pending any specific application, we may initially invest funds in short-term marketable securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness.

 

MARKET FOR COMMON STOCK

 

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “LTBR.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on May 24, 2019 on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $0.815 per share. As of May 7, 2019, there were 36.5 million shares of our common stock outstanding.

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends. We currently intend to retain and use any future earnings for the development and expansion of our business and do not plan to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors. In addition, any future cash dividends will be subject to the consent of the holders of a majority of our Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, as described below under “Description of Capital Stock—Preferred Stock.”

 

DILUTION

 

If you invest in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering. We calculate net tangible book value per share by dividing the net tangible book value, which is tangible assets less total liabilities, by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution represents the difference between the portion of the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares in this offering and the as-adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering. Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 was approximately $23.4 million, or $0.65 per share of common stock.

 

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in the aggregate amount of $13,500,000 at an assumed offering price of $0.815 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on May 24, 2019, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 would have been approximately $36.3 million, or $0.69 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the net tangible book value of $0.04 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $0.13 per share to new investors.

 

 
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The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed offering price per share

 

 

 

 

$0.815

 

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019

 

$0.65

 

 

 

 

 

Increase per share attributable to new investors

 

$0.04

 

 

 

 

 

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019, after giving effect to this offering

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.69

 

Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

 

 

 

 

 

$0.13

 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of approximately 16.5 million shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus at a price of $0.815 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on May 24, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $13,500,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $0.25 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $0.815 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $13,500,000 is sold at that price, would result in an adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering of $0.74 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.32 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $0.25 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $0.815 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $13,500,000 is sold at that price, would result in an adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering of $0.60 per share and new investors in this offering would not experience any dilution at such price.

 

The foregoing table and discussion is based on 36,149,325 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2019 and excludes, as of March 31, 2019, warrants to purchase 844,337 shares of our common stock, options to purchase 5,342,192 shares of our common stock, 813,624 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock convertible into 813,624 shares of common stock (plus accrued dividends of $453,597 relating to an additional 165,239 shares of common stock), and 2,666,667 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock convertible into 2,666,667 shares of common stock (plus accrued dividends of $337,456, relating to an additional 224,970 shares of common stock). To the extent that options or warrants are exercised or preferred stock is converted into common stock, there may be further dilution to new investors.

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following description of our capital stock and provisions of our articles of incorporation, bylaws and the Nevada corporations law are summaries and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the articles of incorporation and the bylaws. Pursuant to the Company’s articles of incorporation, as amended, the Company’s authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value of $0.001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, to be designated from time to time by our board.

 

Common Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share. Each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote per share on all matters. Our bylaws provide that elections for directors shall be by a plurality of votes. Stockholders do not have preemptive rights to purchase shares in any future issuance of our common stock. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and after payment of creditors and preferred stockholders, if any, our assets will be divided pro-rata on a share-for-share basis among the holders of the shares of common stock.

 

 
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The holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to dividends out of funds legally available when and as declared by our board of directors, subject to the rights of holders of our Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, as described below under “ – Preferred Stock”. Our board of directors has never declared a dividend and does not anticipate declaring a dividend in the foreseeable future. Should we decide in the future to pay dividends, as a holding company, our ability to do so and meet other obligations depends upon the receipt of dividends or other payments from our operating subsidiary and other holdings and investments. In addition, our operating subsidiary, from time to time, may be subject to restrictions on its ability to make distributions to us, including as a result of restrictive covenants in loan agreements, restrictions on the conversion of local currency into U.S. dollars or other hard currency and other regulatory restrictions. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive, ratably, the net assets available to stockholders after payment of all creditors.

 

All of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. To the extent that additional shares of our common stock are issued, the relative interests of existing stockholders will be diluted.

 

As of May 7, 2019, there were 36,474,663 shares of our common stock outstanding.

 

Preferred Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, in one or more classes or series within a class as may be determined by our board of directors, who may establish, from time to time, the number of shares to be included in each class or series, may fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each such class or series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof. Any preferred stock so issued by the board of directors may rank senior to the common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, or both. Moreover, under certain circumstances, the issuance of preferred stock or the existence of the unissued preferred stock might tend to discourage or render more difficult a merger or other change of control.

 

The description of certain terms of our Non-Voting Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series A Preferred Stock”) and Non-Voting Series B Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series B Preferred Stock”) in this prospectus supplement and accompany prospectus does not purport to be complete and is in all respects subject to, and qualified in its entirety by references to, the relevant provisions of our articles of incorporation, our bylaws, the Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Non-Voting Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, as amended (the “Series A Certificate of Designation”), the Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Non-Voting Series B Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series B Certificate of Designation”) and Nevada law. Copies of our articles of incorporation, bylaws, the Series A Certificate of Designation and Series B Certificate of Designation are available from us upon request.

 

Series A Preferred Stock

 

The Series A Certificate of Designation authorizes the Company to issue up to 1,020,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock. Each share of Series A Preferred Stock has a liquidation preference of $2.7451 per share (the “Series A Liquidation Preference”).

 

Dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock are cumulative and accrue quarterly, whether or not declared by the board of directors, at the rate of 7.0% per annum on the sum of the Series A Liquidation Preference plus all unpaid accrued and unpaid dividends thereon, whether or not declared by the board of directors. In addition, if we declare certain dividends on our common stock, we are required to declare and pay a dividend on the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock on a pro rata basis with the common stock, determined on an as-converted basis. In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding down of the Company, each holder of outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock will be entitled to be paid out of the assets of the Company available for distribution to stockholders, before any payment may be made to the holders of common stock, an amount equal to the Series A Liquidation Preference for such shares plus accrued and unpaid dividends thereon.

 

 
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Except as otherwise required by law, the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock have no voting rights. In addition, as long as 255,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock are outstanding, we may not take certain actions without first having obtained the affirmative vote or waiver of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock, including, among other actions, amending or waiving any provision of our articles of incorporation or bylaws, repurchasing or redeeming common stock except from employees, officers, directors, or consultants upon termination of their employment or other relationship or in accordance with any existing repurchase or redemption program that has been approved by our board of directors, declaring or paying any dividend other than a dividend payable solely in stock or other securities of the Company, or entering into any sale, license, lease or other disposition of assets having a book value of at least $10 million that is effected outside of the ordinary course of the business. Further, as long as 510,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock are outstanding, we may not effect any event for which the Series A Liquidation Preference would become payable. The holders of the Series A Preferred Stock also have the right to participate in future equity offerings by the Company to maintain their pro rata ownership in the Company.

 

Any holder of outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock may elect, from time to time, to convert any or all of such holder’s shares of Series A Preferred Stock into a number of shares of common stock as is determined by dividing the Series A Liquidation Preference by $2.7451 (the “Series A Conversion Price”). In addition, if at any time the trading price of our common stock (i) is greater than two times the Series A Conversion Price before August 2, 2019 or (ii) is greater than three times the Series A Conversion Price, we may cause a mandatory conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock. The Series Conversion Price is also subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments following stock splits, stock combinations and similar events.

 

We have the option at any time after August 2, 2019 to redeem some or all of the outstanding Series A Preferred Stock for an amount in cash equal to the Series A Liquidation Preference plus the amount of any accrued but unpaid dividends. The Series A Preferred Stock is not redeemable upon the election of the holders of Series A Preferred Stock. Without the consent of our board of directors, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock may only transfer shares of Series A Preferred Stock to their affiliates or to the Company.

 

As of May 7, 2019, there were 785,877 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock outstanding.

 

Series B Preferred Stock

 

The Series B Certificate of Designation authorizes the Company to issue up to 2,666,666 shares of Series B Preferred Stock. Each share of Series B Preferred Stock has a liquidation preference of $1.50 per share (the “Series B Liquidation Preference”).

 

Dividends on the Series B Preferred Stock are cumulative and accrue quarterly, whether or not declared by the board of directors, at the rate of 7.0% per annum on the sum of the Series B Liquidation Preference plus all unpaid accrued and unpaid dividends thereon, whether or not declared by the board of directors. In addition, if we declare certain dividends on our common stock or on Series A Preferred Stock, we are required to declare and pay a dividend on the outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock on a pro rata basis with the common stock or Series A Preferred Stock, as applicable, determined on an as-converted basis. In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding down of the Company, each holder of outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock will be entitled to be paid out of the assets of the Company available for distribution to stockholders, before any payment may be made to the holders of common stock or Series A Preferred Stock, an amount equal to the Series B Liquidation Preference for such shares plus accrued and unpaid dividends thereon.

 

 
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Except as otherwise required by law, the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock have no voting rights. In addition, as long as 666,667 shares of Series B Preferred Stock are outstanding, we may not take certain actions without first having obtained the affirmative vote or waiver of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock, including, among other actions, amending or waiving any provision of our articles of incorporation or bylaws, repurchasing or redeeming common stock except from employees, officers, directors, or consultants upon termination of their employment or other relationship or in accordance with any existing repurchase or redemption program that has been approved by our board of directors, declaring or paying any dividend other than a dividend payable solely in stock or other securities of the Company, or entering into any sale, license, lease or other disposition of assets having a book value of at least $5 million that is effected outside of the ordinary course of the business. Further, as long as 1,333,334 shares of Series B Preferred Stock are outstanding, we may not effect any event for which the Series B Liquidation Preference would become payable. The holders of the Series B Preferred Stock also have the right to participate in future equity offerings by the Company to maintain their pro rata ownership in the Company.

 

Any holder of outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock may elect, from time to time, to convert any or all of such holder’s shares of Series B Preferred Stock into a number of shares of common stock as is determined by dividing the Series B Liquidation Preference by $1.50 (the “Series B Conversion Price”). In addition, if at any time the trading price of our common stock (i) is greater than $5.4902 per share before August 2, 2018 or (ii) is greater than $8.2353 per share, we may cause a mandatory conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock. If any Series A Preferred Stock are then outstanding, we may only deliver a conversion notice with respect to mandatory conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock if we also cause the concurrent mandatory conversion of all or part of the Series A Preferred Stock. The Series B Conversion Price is also subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments following stock splits, stock combinations and similar events.

 

We have the option at any time after August 2, 2019 to redeem some or all of the outstanding Series B Preferred Stock for an amount in cash equal to the Series B Liquidation Preference plus the amount of any accrued but unpaid dividends. If any shares of Series A Preferred Stock are then outstanding, we may only exercise the call option if we also concurrently redeem all or part of the Series A Preferred Stock in the same proportion as the percentage of outstanding Series B Preferred Stock being redeemed. The Series B Preferred Stock is not redeemable upon the election of the holders of Series B Preferred Stock. Without the consent of our board of directors, the holders of Series B Preferred Stock may only transfer shares of Series B Preferred Stock to their affiliates or to the Company.

 

As of May 7, 2019, there were 2,666,667 shares of our Series B Preferred Stock outstanding.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws contain certain provisions that may have anti-takeover effects, making it more difficult for or preventing a third party from acquiring control of the Company or changing its board of directors and management. According to our articles of incorporation and bylaws, neither the holders of our common stock nor the holders of any preferred stock have cumulative voting rights in the election of our directors. The lack of cumulative voting makes it more difficult for other stockholders to replace our board of directors or for a third party to obtain control of the Company by replacing its board of directors.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Nevada Law

 

Business Combinations

 

The “business combination” provisions of Sections 78.411 to 78.444, inclusive, of the Nevada Revised Statutes, or NRS, generally prohibit a Nevada corporation with at least 200 stockholders from engaging in various “combination” transactions with any interested stockholder for a period of two years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the transaction is approved by the board of directors prior to the date the interested stockholder obtained such status or the combination is approved by the board of directors and thereafter is approved at a meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least 60% of the outstanding voting power held by disinterested stockholders, and extends beyond the expiration of the two-year period, unless:

 

 
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·the combination was approved by the board of directors prior to the person becoming an interested stockholder or the transaction by which the person first became an interested stockholder was approved by the board of directors before the person became an interested stockholder or the combination is later approved by a majority of the voting power held by disinterested stockholders; or

 

 

 

 

·if the consideration to be paid by the interested stockholder is at least equal to the highest of: (a) the highest price per share paid by the interested stockholder within the two years immediately preceding the date of the announcement of the combination or in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder, whichever is higher, (b) the market value per share of common stock on the date of announcement of the combination and the date the interested stockholder acquired the shares, whichever is higher, or (c) for holders of preferred stock, the highest liquidation value of the preferred stock, if it is higher.
 

A “combination” is generally defined to include mergers or consolidations or any sale, lease exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer, or other disposition, in one transaction or a series of transactions, with an “interested stockholder” having: (a) an aggregate market value equal to 5% or more of the aggregate market value of the assets of the corporation, (b) an aggregate market value equal to 5% or more of the aggregate market value of all outstanding shares of the corporation, (c) 10% or more of the earning power or net income of the corporation, and (d) certain other transactions with an interested stockholder or an affiliate or associate of an interested stockholder.

 

In general, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns (or within two years, did own) 10% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire our Company even though such a transaction may offer our stockholders the opportunity to sell their stock at a price above the prevailing market price.

 

Our articles of incorporation state that we have elected not to be governed by the “business combination” provisions, therefore such provisions currently do not apply to us.

 

Control Share Acquisitions

 

The “control share” provisions of Sections 78.378 to 78.3793, inclusive, of the NRS apply to “issuing corporations” that are Nevada corporations with at least 200 stockholders, including at least 100 stockholders of record who are Nevada residents, and that conduct business directly or indirectly in Nevada. The control share statute prohibits an acquirer, under certain circumstances, from voting its shares of a target corporation’s stock after crossing certain ownership threshold percentages, unless the acquirer obtains approval of the target corporation’s disinterested stockholders. The statute specifies three thresholds: one-fifth or more but less than one-third, one-third but less than a majority, and a majority or more, of the outstanding voting power. Generally, once an acquirer crosses one of the above thresholds, those shares in an offer or acquisition and acquired within 90 days thereof become “control shares” and such control shares are deprived of the right to vote until disinterested stockholders restore the right. These provisions also provide that if control shares are accorded full voting rights and the acquiring person has acquired a majority or more of all voting power, all other stockholders who do not vote in favor of authorizing voting rights to the control shares are entitled to demand payment for the fair value of their shares in accordance with statutory procedures established for dissenters’ rights.

 

A corporation may elect to not be governed by, or “opt out” of, the control share provisions by making an election in its articles of incorporation or bylaws, provided that the opt-out election must be in place on the 10th day following the date an acquiring person has acquired a controlling interest, that is, crossing any of the three thresholds described above. We have not opted out of the control share statutes, and will be subject to these statutes if we are an “issuing corporation” as defined in such statutes.

 

 
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The effect of the Nevada control share statutes is that the acquiring person, and those acting in association with the acquiring person, will obtain only such voting rights in the control shares as are conferred by a resolution of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting. The Nevada control share law, if applicable, could have the effect of discouraging takeovers of our Company.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

Our independent stock transfer agent is Computershare Trust Company, located at 350 Indiana Street, Golden, Colorado 80401. Their phone number is (303) 262-0600.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into an At-the-Market Equity Offering Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated (the “Agent”), dated May 28, 2019, under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock from time to time through the Agent, acting as sales agent, subject to certain limitations, including the number of shares registered under the registration statement to which the offering relates. Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct the Agent not to sell our common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or the Agent may suspend the offering of our common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

 

Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify the Agent of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed the Agent, unless the Agent declines to accept the terms of the notice, the Agent has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of the Agent under the sales agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

 

We will pay the Agent commissions for its services in acting as an agent in the sale of our common stock. The Agent will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 4.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to closing this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In addition, we have agreed to reimburse the Agent for fees and disbursements related to its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000, and for certain other expenses. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to the Agent under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $75,000.

 

Settlement for sales of our common stock will occur on the second (2nd) business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on such earlier day as is then industry practice for regular-way trading, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the Agent in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, the Agent will, with respect to sales effected in an “at the market offering,” be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of the Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. The Agent may retain Spartan Capital Securities LLC as a sub-agent in connection with this offering and may pay a portion of its compensation hereunder to such sub-agent. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agent against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

 
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The offering pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the issuance and sale of all shares of our common stock subject to the sales agreement, or (ii) the termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein.

 

This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the sales agreement is filed with the SEC as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part. See “Where You Can Find Additional Information” below.

 

The Agent and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, the Agent will not engage in any market making or stabilizing activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Gary R. Henrie, Las Vegas, Nevada, has passed upon the validity of the common stock offered hereby. Duane Morris LLP, New York, New York, is counsel for the Agent in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the two years in the period ended December 31, 2018 incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The information on the SEC’s website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, and any references to this website or any other website are inactive textual references only.

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus form part of a registration statement on Form S-3 filed by us with the SEC under the Securities Act. As permitted by the SEC, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all the information in the registration statement filed with the SEC. For a more complete understanding of this offering, you should refer to the complete registration statement, including the exhibits thereto, on Form S-3 that may be obtained as described above. Statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus about the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete. If we have filed any contract or other document as an exhibit to the registration statement or any other document incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part, you should read the exhibit for a more complete understanding of the document or matter involved. Each statement regarding a contract or other document is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual document.

 

 
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus certain of the information we file with the SEC. This means we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document that has been filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC:

 

 

·our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed on March 29, 2019;

 

 

 

 

·the portions of our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 8, 2019 specifically incorporated by reference in Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018;

 

 

 

 

·our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, filed on May 10, 2019;

 

 

 

 

·our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 20, 2019; and

 

 

 

 

·the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on July 18, 2006, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.
 

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus supplement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost by contacting: Lightbridge Corporation, 11710 Plaza America Drive, Suite 2000, Reston, Virginia, 20190; telephone number: (571) 730-1200. You may also access the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement through our website at www.ltbridge.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

 
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Up to $13,500,000

Common Stock

 

_______________________________

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

_______________________________

    

 

 

_______________________________

 

May 28, 2019

      

 
 
 

  

PROSPECTUS

  

LIGHTBRIDGE CORPORATION

 

$75,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Debt Securities

Warrants

Purchase Contracts

Units

 

We may offer and sell from time to time up to $75,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, in one or more classes or series and in amounts, at prices and on terms that we will determine at the times of the offerings. These securities may, if applicable, be convertible into, or exercisable or exchangeable for, other securities described in this prospectus. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

 

Each time we sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in any of our securities.

 

The securities may be offered by us at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be offered directly by us, through agents designated from time to time by us or to or through underwriters or dealers, on an immediate, continuous or delayed basis. If any agents, dealers or underwriters are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “LTBR”. On March 14, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq was $1.42 per share. As of March 14, 2018, the aggregate market value of our voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates was more than $75,000,000, as calculated in accordance with General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

 

––––––––––––––––

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 of this prospectus and the risks and uncertainties described in the documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) that are incorporated in this prospectus by reference for certain risks and uncertainties relating to an investment in our securities.

 

––––––––––––––––

 

Neither the SEC nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

––––––––––––––––

 

This prospectus is dated March 23, 2018.

 

 
 
 
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

 

3

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

 

4

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

 

5

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

 

5

 

ABOUT LIGHTBRIDGE CORPORATION

 

 

6

 

RISK FACTORS

 

 

7

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

 

7

 

DILUTION

 

 

7

 

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

 

 

8

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

 

8

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

 

 

11

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

14

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

 

24

 

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

 

 

25

 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

 

26

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

 

27

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

 

28

 

EXPERTS

 

 

29

 

 

––––––––––––––––

 

We are responsible for the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and any free-writing prospectus we prepare or authorize. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information, and we take no responsibility for any other information others may give you. We are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than its date.

 

 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell our securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $75,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer our securities, we will provide you with a supplement to this prospectus that will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities we offer.

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer, sell or issue. Each time we offer securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement and attach it to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will contain specific information about the terms of the securities being offered, sold or issued at that time. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” before making an investment decision.

 

To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

 

References in this prospectus to “Lightbridge,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our Company,” or “the Company” mean Lightbridge Corporation, a Nevada corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless we state otherwise or the context indicates otherwise.

 

 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information at the SEC’s public reference facilities at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. You can request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC and paying a fee for the copying cost. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information about the operation of the public reference facilities. SEC filings are also available at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

 

This prospectus forms part of a registration statement on Form S-3 filed by us with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. As permitted by the SEC, this prospectus does not contain all the information in the registration statement filed with the SEC. For a more complete understanding of this offering, you should refer to the complete registration statement, including the exhibits thereto, on Form S-3 that may be obtained as described above. Statements contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete. If we have filed any contract or other document as an exhibit to the registration statement or any other document incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, you should read the exhibit for a more complete understanding of the document or matter involved. Each statement regarding a contract or other document is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual document.

 

 
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” in this prospectus certain of the information we file with the SEC. This means we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document that has been filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC:

 

 

·

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, filed on March 14, 2018;

 

·

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 18, 2018, January 24, 2018, January 25, 2018, January 26, 2018, January 30, 2018, February 7, 2018, March 2, 2018, and both 8-K/As filed on March 5, 2018 (excluding any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any such Current Report on Form 8-K); and

 

·

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on July 18, 2006, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost by contacting: Lightbridge Corporation, 11710 Plaza America Drive, Suite 2000, Reston, VA 20190; telephone number: (571) 730-1200. You may also access the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus through our website at www.ltbridge.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

In addition to historical information, this prospectus contains or incorporates by reference forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements. We use words such as “believe”, “expect”, “anticipate”, “project”, “target”, “plan”, “optimistic”, “intend”, “aim”, “will”, or similar expressions which are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such statements include, among others, (1) those concerning market and business segment growth, demand and acceptance of our nuclear energy consulting services and nuclear fuel technology business, (2) any projections of sales, earnings, revenue, margins or other financial items, (3) any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations and the timing of the development of our nuclear fuel technology, (4) any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance, (5) uncertainties related to conducting business in foreign countries, (6) any statements about future financings and liquidity, (7) any statement about the timing or success of entering into a potential joint venture as well as (8) all assumptions, expectations, predictions, intentions or beliefs about future events. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that if they were to ever materialize or prove incorrect, could cause the results of the Company to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties, among others, include:

 

 
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·our ability to commercialize our nuclear fuel technology, including risks related to the design and testing of nuclear fuel incorporating our technology,

 

 

 

 

·the realization of expected benefits from Enfission, LLC, our joint venture with Framatome, Inc., and our future collaboration with Framatome,

 

 

 

 

·our ability to attract new customers,

 

 

 

 

·our ability to employ and retain qualified employees and consultants that have experience in the nuclear industry,

 

 

 

 

·competition and competitive factors in the markets in which we compete,

 

 

 

 

·public perception of nuclear energy generally,

 

 

 

 

·general economic and business conditions in the local economies in which we regularly conduct business, which can affect demand for the Company’s services,

 

 

 

 

·changes in laws, rules and regulations governing our business,

 

 

 

 

·development and utilization of, and challenges to, our intellectual property,

 

 

 

 

·potential and contingent liabilities, and

 

 

 

 

·the risks identified in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” included herein, in our Form 10-K filing, our other filings with the SEC and any applicable prospectus supplement offering our securities.

  

Most of these factors are beyond our ability to predict or control. Future events and actual results could differ materially from those set forth in, contemplated by or underlying the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made. The Company assumes no obligation and does not intend to update these forward-looking statements, except as required by law.

 

ABOUT LIGHTBRIDGE CORPORATION

 

Lightbridge is a leading nuclear fuel technology company. Our primary focus is the development and commercialization of next generation nuclear fuel that will significantly improve the economics and safety of existing and new reactors, with a meaningful impact on addressing climate change and air pollution challenges. We believe our nuclear fuel technology has the potential to enhance reactor safety and the proliferation resistance of spent fuel and increase the power output of commercial reactors, reducing the cost of generating electricity and the amount of nuclear waste on a per unit of electricity generated-megawatt-hour basis.

 

We conduct our business principally through Enfission, LLC (“Enfission”), our 50/50 joint venture with Framatome for the development, regulatory licensing, fabrication, and sale of nuclear fuel assemblies based on Lightbridge-designed metallic fuel technology and other advanced nuclear fuel intellectual property. Enfission serves as our exclusive vehicle for the development of manufacturing processes and fuel assembly designs for pressurized water reactors and, boiling water reactors, which collectively constitute most of the power reactors in the world, as well as water-cooled small modular reactors and water-cooled research reactors, which constitute the most widely used reactor types in the world. In addition to our nuclear fuel technology segment, we also opportunistically provide nuclear power consulting and strategic advisory services to commercial and governmental entities worldwide

 

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada on February 2, 1999 and engaged in businesses other than our current business until October 6, 2006, when we acquired our wholly-owned subsidiary Thorium Power, Inc.

 

 
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The address of our principal executive office is 11710 Plaza America Drive, Suite 2000, Reston, Virginia 20190, and our telephone number is (571) 730-1200. We maintain a website at www.ltbridge.com that contains information about our Company, though no information contained on our website is part of this prospectus.

 

RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific risk factors discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and in any applicable prospectus supplement and our other filings with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, or any applicable prospectus supplement. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently view as immaterial, may also impair our business. If any of the risks or uncertainties described in our SEC filings or any prospectus supplement or any additional risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless specified otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we expect to use the net proceeds we receive from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things:

 

 

·

acquisitions;

 

 

 

 

·

working capital;

 

·

capital expenditures;

 

·

repayment of debt;

 

·

research and development expenditures; and

 

·

investments.

 

The precise amount and timing of the application of such proceeds will depend upon our funding requirements and the availability and cost of other capital. We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Pending any specific application, we may initially invest funds in short-term marketable securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness. Additional information on the use of net proceeds from the sale of securities covered by this prospectus may be set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the specific offering.

 

DILUTION

 

We will set forth in a prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus the following information, as required, regarding any dilution of the equity interests of investors purchasing securities in an offering under this prospectus:

 

 

·

the net tangible book value per share of our equity securities before and after the offering;

 

·

the amount of the change in such net tangible book value per share attributable to the cash payments made by purchasers in the offering; and

 

·

the amount of the immediate dilution from the public offering price which will be absorbed by such purchasers.

 

 
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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

 

If any debt securities or preferred stock are offered pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide a table setting forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges or ratio of combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends on a historical basis in the applicable prospectus supplement, if required.

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

Common Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to 100,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share. Each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote per share on all matters. Our bylaws provide that elections for directors shall be by a plurality of votes. Stockholders do not have preemptive rights to purchase shares in any future issuance of our common stock. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and after payment of creditors and preferred stockholders, if any, our assets will be divided pro-rata on a share-for-share basis among the holders of the shares of common stock.

 

The holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to dividends out of funds legally available when and as declared by our board of directors. Our board of directors has never declared a dividend and does not anticipate declaring a dividend in the foreseeable future. Should we decide in the future to pay dividends, as a holding company, our ability to do so and meet other obligations depends upon the receipt of dividends or other payments from our operating subsidiary and other holdings and investments. In addition, our operating subsidiary, from time to time, may be subject to restrictions on its ability to make distributions to us, including as a result of restrictive covenants in loan agreements, restrictions on the conversion of local currency into U.S. dollars or other hard currency and other regulatory restrictions. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive, ratably, the net assets available to stockholders after payment of all creditors.

 

All of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. To the extent that additional shares of our common stock are issued, the relative interests of existing stockholders will be diluted.

 

As of March 14, 2018, there were 23,644,655 shares of our common stock outstanding.

 

Preferred Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, in one or more classes or series within a class as may be determined by our board of directors, who may establish, from time to time, the number of shares to be included in each class or series, may fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each such class or series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof. Any preferred stock so issued by the board of directors may rank senior to the common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, or both. Moreover, under certain circumstances, the issuance of preferred stock or the existence of the unissued preferred stock might tend to discourage or render more difficult a merger or other change of control.

 

As of March 13, 2018, there were 1,020,000 shares of our convertible Series A preferred stock outstanding, and 2,666,667 shares of our convertible Series B preferred stock outstanding.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws contain certain provisions that may have anti-takeover effects, making it more difficult for or preventing a third party from acquiring control of the Company or changing its board of directors and management. According to our bylaws and articles of incorporation, neither the holders of our common stock nor the holders of any preferred stock we may issue in the future have cumulative voting rights in the election of our directors. The combination of the present ownership by a few stockholders of a significant portion of our issued and outstanding common stock and lack of cumulative voting makes it more difficult for other stockholders to replace our board of directors or for a third party to obtain control of the Company by replacing its board of directors.

 

 
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Anti-Takeover Effects of Nevada Law

 

Business Combinations

 

The “business combination” provisions of Sections 78.411 to 78.444, inclusive, of the Nevada Revised Statutes, or NRS, generally prohibit a Nevada corporation with at least 200 stockholders from engaging in various “combination” transactions with any interested stockholder for a period of two years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the transaction is approved by the board of directors prior to the date the interested stockholder obtained such status or the combination is approved by the board of directors and thereafter is approved at a meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least 60% of the outstanding voting power held by disinterested stockholders, and extends beyond the expiration of the two-year period, unless:

 

 

·

the combination was approved by the board of directors prior to the person becoming an interested stockholder or the transaction by which the person first became an interested stockholder was approved by the board of directors before the person became an interested stockholder or the combination is later approved by a majority of the voting power held by disinterested stockholders; or

 

·

if the consideration to be paid by the interested stockholder is at least equal to the highest of: (a) the highest price per share paid by the interested stockholder within the two years immediately preceding the date of the announcement of the combination or in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder, whichever is higher, (b) the market value per share of common stock on the date of announcement of the combination and the date the interested stockholder acquired the shares, whichever is higher, or (c) for holders of preferred stock, the highest liquidation value of the preferred stock, if it is higher.

 

A “combination” is generally defined to include mergers or consolidations or any sale, lease exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer, or other disposition, in one transaction or a series of transactions, with an “interested stockholder” having: (a) an aggregate market value equal to 5% or more of the aggregate market value of the assets of the corporation, (b) an aggregate market value equal to 5% or more of the aggregate market value of all outstanding shares of the corporation, (c) 10% or more of the earning power or net income of the corporation, and (d) certain other transactions with an interested stockholder or an affiliate or associate of an interested stockholder.

 

 In general, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns (or within two years, did own) 10% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire our Company even though such a transaction may offer our stockholders the opportunity to sell their stock at a price above the prevailing market price.

 

 Our articles of incorporation state that we have elected not to be governed by the “business combination” provisions, therefore such provisions currently do not apply to us.

 

 
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Control Share Acquisitions

 

The “control share” provisions of Sections 78.378 to 78.3793, inclusive, of the NRS apply to “issuing corporations” that are Nevada corporations with at least 200 stockholders, including at least 100 stockholders of record who are Nevada residents, and that conduct business directly or indirectly in Nevada. The control share statute prohibits an acquirer, under certain circumstances, from voting its shares of a target corporation’s stock after crossing certain ownership threshold percentages, unless the acquirer obtains approval of the target corporation’s disinterested stockholders. The statute specifies three thresholds: one-fifth or more but less than one-third, one-third but less than a majority, and a majority or more, of the outstanding voting power. Generally, once an acquirer crosses one of the above thresholds, those shares in an offer or acquisition and acquired within 90 days thereof become “control shares” and such control shares are deprived of the right to vote until disinterested stockholders restore the right. These provisions also provide that if control shares are accorded full voting rights and the acquiring person has acquired a majority or more of all voting power, all other stockholders who do not vote in favor of authorizing voting rights to the control shares are entitled to demand payment for the fair value of their shares in accordance with statutory procedures established for dissenters’ rights.

  

A corporation may elect to not be governed by, or “opt out” of, the control share provisions by making an election in its articles of incorporation or bylaws, provided that the opt-out election must be in place on the 10th day following the date an acquiring person has acquired a controlling interest, that is, crossing any of the three thresholds described above. We have not opted out of the control share statutes, and will be subject to these statutes if we are an “issuing corporation” as defined in such statutes.

 

The effect of the Nevada control share statutes is that the acquiring person, and those acting in association with the acquiring person, will obtain only such voting rights in the control shares as are conferred by a resolution of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting. The Nevada control share law, if applicable, could have the effect of discouraging takeovers of our Company.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

Our transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, 8742 Lucent Blvd., Suite 225, Highlands Ranch, Colorado, 80129. Its telephone number is 800-962-4284 and facsimile is 303-262-0604.

 

 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

 

General

 

We may, at our option, elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, which we call depositary shares, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do, we will issue to the public receipts, called depositary receipts, for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fraction, to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, of a share of a particular series of preferred stock. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fractional interest in a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. Those rights include dividend, voting, redemption, conversion and liquidation rights.

 

The shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares will be deposited with a bank or trust company selected by us to act as depositary under a deposit agreement between us, the depositary and the holders of the depositary receipts. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares.

 

The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the deposit agreement. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.

 

The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus is not a complete description of the terms of the depository shares. You should refer to the form of the deposit agreement, our articles of incorporation and the certificate of designation for the applicable series of preferred stock that are, or will be, filed with the SEC.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions

 

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions, if any, received in respect of the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by those holders on the relevant record date. The relevant record date for depositary shares will be the same date as the record date for the underlying preferred stock.

 

If there is a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property (including securities) received by it to the record holders of depositary shares, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary may, with our approval, adopt another method for the distribution, including selling the property and distributing the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.

 

Liquidation Preference

 

If a series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares has a liquidation preference, in the event of the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Withdrawal of Stock

 

Unless the related depositary shares have been previously called for redemption, upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the office of the depositary, the holder of the depositary shares will be entitled to delivery, at the office of the depositary to or upon his or her order, of the number of whole shares of the preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares. In no event will the depositary deliver fractional shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn may not thereafter deposit those shares under the deposit agreement or receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.

 

 
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Redemption of Depositary Shares

 

Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of the preferred stock so redeemed, so long as we have paid in full to the depositary the redemption price of the preferred stock to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends on the preferred stock to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable on the preferred stock multiplied by the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by one depositary share. If less than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.

 

After the date fixed for redemption, depositary shares called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the monies payable upon redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares were entitled upon redemption upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares.

 

Voting the Preferred Stock

 

Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts relating to that preferred stock. The record date for the depositary receipts relating to the preferred stock will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all action that may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will not vote any shares of preferred stock except to the extent it receives specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing that number of shares of preferred stock.

 

Charges of Depositary

 

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges (including those in connection with the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the preferred stock and the transferring, splitting or grouping of depositary receipts) as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. If these charges have not been paid by the holders of depositary receipts, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipt.

 

Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement

 

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares, other than fee changes, will not be effective unless the amendment has been approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding depositary shares. The deposit agreement may be terminated by the depositary or us only if:

 

 

·

all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or

 

·

there has been a final distribution of the preferred stock in connection with our dissolution and such distribution has been made to all the holders of depositary shares.

 

 
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Resignation and Removal of Depositary

 

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may remove the depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal of the depositary will take effect upon our appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having the requisite combined capital and surplus as set forth in the applicable agreement.

 

Notices

 

The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and other communications, including proxy solicitation materials received from us, that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications we deliver to the depositary as the holder of preferred stock.

 

Limitation of Liability

 

Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if either we or it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations. Our obligations and those of the depositary will be limited to performance in good faith of our and their duties thereunder. We and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

 

 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following is a summary of the general terms of the debt securities that we may issue. We will file a prospectus supplement that may contain additional terms when we issue debt securities. The terms presented here, together with the terms in a related prospectus supplement, will be a description of the material terms of the debt securities. You should also read the indenture under which the debt securities are to be issued. We have incorporated by reference a form of indenture governing different types of debt securities with the SEC in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. All capitalized terms have the meanings specified in the indenture.

 

We may issue, from time to time, debt securities, in one or more series, that will consist of senior debt, senior subordinated debt or subordinated debt. We refer to the subordinated debt securities and the senior subordinated debt securities together as the subordinated securities. The debt securities that we may offer will be issued under an indenture between us and an entity, identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, as trustee. Debt securities, whether senior, senior subordinated or subordinated, may be issued as convertible debt securities or exchangeable debt securities. The following is a summary of the material provisions of the indenture incorporated by reference by the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

As you read this section, please remember that for each series of debt securities, the specific terms of your debt security as described in the applicable prospectus supplement will supplement and, if applicable, may modify or replace the general terms described in the summary below. The statements we make in this section may not apply to your debt security.

 

General Terms of the Indenture

 

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. We may, without the consent of the holders of any series, increase the principal amount of securities in that series in the future, on the same terms and conditions and with the same CUSIP numbers as that series. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

 

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount”, or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with original issue discount will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement for a series of debt securities that we issue will describe, among other things, the following terms of the offered debt securities:

 

 

·

the title and authorized denominations of the series of debt securities;

   

 

·

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the series of debt securities;

   

 

·

whether such debt securities will be issued in fully registered form without coupons or in a form registered as to principal only with coupons or in bearer form with coupons;

   

 

·

whether issued in the form of one or more global securities and whether all or a portion of the principal amount of the debt securities is represented thereby;

   

 

·

the price or prices at which the debt securities will be issued;

   

 

·

the date or dates on which principal is payable;

 

 
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·

the place or places where and the manner in which principal, premium or interest, if any, will be payable and the place or places where the debt securities may be presented for transfer and, if applicable, conversion or exchange;

   

 

·

interest rates, and the dates from which interest, if any, will accrue, and the dates when interest is payable and the maturity;

   

 

·

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of the extensions;

   

 

·

our rights or obligations to redeem or purchase the debt securities;

   

 

·

any sinking fund or other provisions that would obligate us to repurchase or otherwise redeem some or all of the debt securities;

   

 

·

conversion or exchange provisions, if any, including conversion or exchange prices or rates and adjustments thereto;

   

 

·

the currency or currencies of payment of principal or interest;

   

 

·

the terms applicable to any debt securities issued at a discount from their stated principal amount;

   

 

·

the terms, if any, under which any debt securities will rank junior to any of our other debt;

   

 

·

whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased, if different from the provisions set forth in the indenture;

   

 

·

if the amount of payments of principal or interest is to be determined by reference to an index or formula, or based on a coin or currency other than that in which the debt securities are stated to be payable, the manner in which these amounts are determined and the calculation agent, if any, with respect thereto;

   

 

·

the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for the debt securities;

   

 

·

if other than the entire principal amount of the debt securities when issued, the portion of the principal amount payable upon acceleration of maturity as a result of a default on our obligations;

   

 

·

the events of default and covenants relating to the debt securities that are in addition to, modify or delete those described in this prospectus;

   

 

·

the nature and terms of any security for any secured debt securities; and

 

 

 

 

·

any other specific terms of any debt securities.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will present material U.S. federal income tax considerations for holders of any debt securities and the securities exchange or quotation system on which any debt securities are to be listed or quoted.

 

Senior Debt Securities

 

Payment of the principal of, premium and interest, if any, on senior debt securities will rank on a parity with all of our other secured/unsecured and unsubordinated debt.

 

 
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Senior Subordinated Debt Securities

 

Payment of the principal of, premium and interest, if any, on senior subordinated debt securities will be junior in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all of our unsubordinated debt, including senior debt securities and any credit facility. We will state in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any senior subordinated debt securities the subordination terms of the securities as well as the aggregate amount of outstanding debt, as of the most recent practicable date, that by its terms would be senior to the senior subordinated debt securities. We will also state in such prospectus supplement limitations, if any, on issuance of additional senior debt.

 

Subordinated Debt Securities

 

Payment of the principal of, premium and interest, if any, on subordinated debt securities will be subordinated and junior in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all of our senior debt, including our senior debt securities and senior subordinated debt securities. We will state in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any subordinated debt securities the subordination terms of the securities as well as the aggregate amount of outstanding indebtedness, as of the most recent practicable date, that by its terms would be senior to the subordinated debt securities. We will also state in such prospectus supplement limitations, if any, on issuance of additional senior indebtedness.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

Debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for other securities, including, for example, shares of our equity securities. The terms and conditions of conversion or exchange will be stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include, among others, the following:

 

 

·

the conversion or exchange price;

 

·

the conversion or exchange period;

 

·

provisions regarding the ability of us or the holder to convert or exchange the debt securities;

 

·

events requiring adjustment to the conversion or exchange price; and

 

·

provisions affecting conversion or exchange in the event of our redemption of the debt securities.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

We cannot consolidate or merge with or into, or transfer or lease all or substantially all of our assets to, any person, and we cannot permit any other person to consolidate with or merge into us, unless (1) we will be the continuing corporation or (2) the successor corporation or person to which our assets are transferred or leased is a corporation organized under the laws of the United States, any state of the United States or the District of Columbia and it expressly assumes our obligations under the debt securities and the indenture. In addition, we cannot complete such a transaction unless immediately after completing the transaction, no event of default under the indenture, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an event of default under the indenture, shall have occurred and be continuing. When the person to whom our assets are transferred or leased has assumed our obligations under the debt securities and the indenture, we shall be discharged from all our obligations under the debt securities and the indenture except in limited circumstances.

 

This covenant would not apply to any recapitalization transaction, a change of control of us or a highly leveraged transaction, unless the transaction or change of control were structured to include a merger or consolidation or transfer or lease of all or substantially all of our assets.

 

 
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Events of Default

 

The term “Event of Default,” when used in the indenture, unless otherwise indicated, means any of the following:

 

 

·

failure to pay interest for 30 days after the date payment is due and payable;

 

·

failure to pay principal or premium, if any, on any debt security when due, either at maturity, upon any redemption, by declaration or otherwise;

 

·

failure to make sinking fund payments when due;

 

·

failure to perform other covenants for 60 days after notice that performance was required;

 

·

events in bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization relating to us; or

 

·

any other Event of Default provided in the applicable officer’s certificate, resolution of our board of directors or the supplemental indenture under which we issue a series of debt securities.

 

An Event of Default for a particular series of debt securities does not necessarily constitute an Event of Default for any other series of debt securities issued under the indenture.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to any series of senior debt securities occurs and is continuing, then either the trustee for such series or the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, by notice in writing, may declare the principal amount of and interest on all of the debt securities of such series to be due and payable immediately; provided, however, unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, if such an Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to more than one series of senior debt securities under the indenture, the trustee for such series or the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of all such series of senior debt securities of equal ranking (or, if any of such senior debt securities are discount securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series), voting as one class, may make such declaration of acceleration as to all series of such equal ranking and not the holders of the debt securities of any one of such series of senior debt securities.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to any series of subordinated securities occurs and is continuing, then either the trustee for such series or the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, by notice in writing, may declare the principal amount of and interest on all of the debt securities of such series to be due and payable immediately; provided, however, unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, if such an Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to more than one series of subordinated securities under the indenture, the trustee for such series or the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of all such series of subordinated securities of equal ranking (or, if any of such subordinated securities are discount securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series), voting as one class, may make such declaration of acceleration as to all series of equal ranking and not the holders of the debt securities of any one of such series of subordinated securities.

 

The holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of all affected series of equal ranking may, after satisfying certain conditions, rescind and annul any of the above-described declarations and consequences involving such series.

 

If an Event of Default relating to events in bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us occurs and is continuing, then the principal amount of all of the debt securities outstanding, and any accrued interest, will automatically become due and payable immediately, without any declaration or other act by the trustee or any holder.

 

 
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The indenture imposes limitations on suits brought by holders of debt securities against us. Except for actions for payment of overdue principal or interest, no holder of debt securities of any series may institute any action against us under the indenture unless:

 

 

·

the holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of default and continuance of such default;

 

·

the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series of equal ranking have requested that the trustee institute the action;

 

·

the requesting holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity for expenses and liabilities that may be incurred by bringing the action;

 

·

the trustee has not instituted the action within 60 days of the request; and

 

·

the trustee has not received inconsistent direction by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series of equal ranking.

 

We will be required to file annually with the trustee a certificate, signed by one of our officers, stating whether or not the officer knows of any default by us in the performance, observance or fulfillment of any condition or covenant of the indenture.

 

Registered Global Securities and Book Entry System

 

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in book-entry form and may be represented by one or more fully registered global securities or in unregistered form with or without coupons. We will deposit any registered global securities with a depositary or with a nominee for a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of such depositary or nominee. In such case, we will issue one or more registered global securities denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the debt securities of the series to be issued and represented by such registered global security or securities. This means that we will not issue certificates to each holder.

 

Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for debt securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole:

 

 

·

by the depositary for such registered global security to its nominee;

 

·

by a nominee of the depositary to the depositary or another nominee of the depositary; or

 

·

by the depositary or its nominee to a successor of the depositary or a nominee of the successor.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement involving any portion of the series represented by a registered global security. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements for registered debt securities:

 

 

·

ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons that have accounts with the depositary for such registered global security, these persons being referred to as “participants,” or persons that may hold interests through participants;

 

·

upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary for the registered global security will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal amounts of the debt securities represented by the registered global security beneficially owned by the participants;

 

·

any dealers, underwriters, or agents participating in the distribution of the debt securities represented by a registered global security will designate the accounts to be credited; and

 

·

ownership of beneficial interest in such registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of such ownership interest will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary for such registered global security for interests of participants, and on the records of participants for interests of persons holding through participants.

 

 
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The laws of some states may require that specified purchasers of securities take physical delivery of the securities in definitive form. These laws may limit the ability of those persons to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

 

So long as the depositary for a registered global security, or its nominee, is the registered owner of such registered global security, the depositary or such nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the indenture. Except as stated below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security:

 

 

·

will not be entitled to have the debt securities represented by a registered global security registered in their names;

 

·

will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the debt securities in the definitive form; and

 

·

will not be considered the owners or holders of the debt securities under the relevant indenture.

 

Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for the registered global security and, if the person is not a participant, on the procedures of a participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the indenture.

 

We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the indenture, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take the action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through the participants to give or take the action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

We will make payments of principal and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on debt securities represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owners of the registered global security.

 

None of us, the trustee or any other agent of ours or the trustee will be responsible or liable for any aspect of the records relating to, or payments made on account of, beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to the beneficial ownership interests.

 

We expect that the depositary for any debt securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payments of principal and premium, if any, and interest, if any, in respect of the registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that standing customer instructions and customary practices will govern payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in the registered global security held through the participants, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” We also expect that any of these payments will be the responsibility of the participants.

 

If the depositary for any debt securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or stops being a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, we will appoint an eligible successor depositary. If we fail to appoint an eligible successor depositary within 90 days, we will issue the debt securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security. In addition, we may at any time and in our sole discretion decide not to have any of the debt securities of a series represented by one or more registered global securities. In that event, we will issue debt securities of the series in a definitive form in exchange for all of the registered global securities representing the debt securities. The trustee will register any debt securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security in the name or names as the depositary, based upon instructions from its participants, shall instruct the trustee.

 

We may also issue bearer debt securities of a series in the form of one or more global securities, referred to as “bearer global securities.” The prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities represented by a bearer global security will describe the applicable terms and procedures. These will include the specific terms of the depositary arrangement and any specific procedures for the issuance of debt securities in definitive form in exchange for a bearer global security, in proportion to the series represented by a bearer global security.

 

 
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Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

 

We can discharge or decrease our obligations under the indenture as stated below.

 

We may discharge obligations to holders of any series of debt securities that have not already been delivered to the trustee for cancellation and that have either become due and payable or are by their terms to become due and payable, or are scheduled for redemption, within sixty (60) days. We may effect a discharge by irrevocably depositing with the trustee cash or U.S. government obligations, as trust funds, in an amount certified to be enough to pay when due, whether at maturity, upon redemption or otherwise, the principal of, premium and interest, if any, on the debt securities and any mandatory sinking fund payments.

 

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may also discharge any and all of our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities at any time, which we refer to as defeasance. We may also be released from the obligations imposed by any covenants of any outstanding series of debt securities and provisions of the indenture, and we may omit to comply with those covenants without creating an event of default under the trust declaration, which we refer to as covenant defeasance. We may effect defeasance and covenant defeasance only if, among other things:

 

 

·

we irrevocably deposit with the trustee cash or U.S. government obligations, as trust funds, in an amount certified to be enough to pay at maturity, or upon redemption, the principal, premium and interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities of the series;

   

 

·

we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel from a nationally recognized law firm to the effect that the holders of the series of debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the defeasance or covenant defeasance and that defeasance or covenant defeasance will not otherwise alter the holders’ U.S. federal income tax treatment of principal, premium and interest, if any, payments on the series of debt securities; and

   

 

·

in the case of subordinated debt securities, no event or condition shall exist that, based on the subordination provisions applicable to the series, would prevent us from making payments of principal of, premium and interest, if any, on any of the applicable subordinated debt securities at the date of the irrevocable deposit referred to above or at any time during the period ending on the 91st day after the deposit date.

 

In the case of a defeasance by us, the opinion we deliver must be based on a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service issued, or a change in U.S. federal income tax law occurring, after the date of the indenture, since such a result would not occur under the U.S. federal income tax laws in effect on such date.

 

Although we may discharge or decrease our obligations under the indenture as described in the two preceding paragraphs, we may not avoid, among other things, our duty to register the transfer or exchange of any series of debt securities, to replace any temporary, mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen series of debt securities or to maintain an office or agency in respect of any series of debt securities.

 

Modification of the Indenture

 

The indenture provides that we and the trustee may enter into supplemental indentures without the consent of the holders of debt securities to:

 

 

·

secure any debt securities and provide the terms and conditions for the release or substitution of the security;

   

 

·

evidence the assumption by a successor corporation of our obligations;

   

 

·

add covenants for the protection of the holders of debt securities;

 

 
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·

add any additional events of default;

   

 

·

cure any ambiguity or correct any inconsistency or defect in the indenture;

   

 

·

add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the indenture in a manner that will become effective only when there is no outstanding debt security which is entitled to the benefit of the provision as to which the modification would apply;

   

 

·

establish the forms or terms of debt securities of any series;

   

 

·

eliminate any conflict between the terms of the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;

   

 

·

evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee and add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture as is necessary for the administration of the trusts by more than one trustee; and

   

 

·

make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under the indenture that will not be inconsistent with any provision of the indenture as long as the new provisions do not adversely affect the interests of the holders of any outstanding debt securities of any series created prior to the modification.

 

The indenture also provides that we and the trustee may, with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of debt securities of all series of senior debt securities or of subordinated securities of equal ranking, as the case may be, then outstanding and affected, voting as one class, add any provisions to, or change in any manner, eliminate or modify in any way the provisions of, the indenture or modify in any manner the rights of the holders of the debt securities. We and the trustee may not, however, without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security affected thereby:

 

 

·

extend the final maturity of any debt security;

 

·

reduce the principal amount or premium, if any;

 

·

reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest;

 

·

reduce any amount payable on redemption or impair or affect any right of redemption at the option of the holder of the debt security;

 

·

change the currency in which the principal, premium or interest, if any, is payable;

 

·

reduce the amount of the principal of any debt security issued with an original issue discount that is payable upon acceleration or provable in bankruptcy;

 

·

alter provisions of the relevant indenture relating to the debt securities not denominated in U.S. dollars;

 

·

impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on any debt security when due;

 

·

if applicable, adversely affect the right of a holder to convert or exchange a debt security; or

 

·

reduce the percentage of holders of debt securities of any series whose consent is required for any modification of the indenture.

 

 
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The indenture provides that the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of any and all affected series of equal ranking, by notice to the relevant trustee, may on behalf of the holders of the debt securities of any and all such series of equal ranking waive any default and its consequences under the indenture except:

 

 

·

a continuing default in the payment of interest on, premium, if any, or principal of, any such debt security held by a non-consenting holder; or

 

·

a default in respect of a covenant or provision of the indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of each series affected.

 

Concerning the Trustee

 

The indenture provides that there may be more than one trustee under the indenture, each for one or more series of debt securities. If there are different trustees for different series of debt securities, each trustee will be a trustee of a trust under the indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee under that indenture.

 

Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, any action permitted to be taken by a trustee may be taken by such trustee only on the one or more series of debt securities for which it is the trustee under the indenture. Any trustee under the indenture may resign or be removed from one or more series of debt securities. All payments of principal of, premium and interest, if any, on, and all registration, transfer, exchange, authentication and delivery of, the debt securities of a series will be effected by the trustee for that series at an office designated by the trustee.

 

If the trustee becomes a creditor of ours, the indenture places limitations on the right of the trustee to obtain payment of claims or to realize on property received in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise. The trustee may engage in other transactions. If it acquires any conflicting interest relating to any duties concerning the debt securities, however, it must eliminate the conflict or resign as trustee.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of any and all affected series of debt securities of equal ranking then outstanding will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee concerning the applicable series of debt securities, provided that the direction:

 

 

·

would not conflict with any rule of law or with the relevant indenture;

 

·

would not be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another holder of the debt securities; and

 

·

would not involve any trustee in personal liability.

 

The indenture provides that in case an Event of Default shall occur, not be cured and be known to any trustee, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would use in the conduct of his or her own affairs in the exercise of the trustee’s power. The trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the debt securities, unless they shall have offered to the trustee security and indemnity satisfactory to the trustee.

 

No Individual Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers or Directors

 

The indenture provides that no incorporator and no past, present or future stockholder, officer or director of ours or any successor corporation in their capacity as such shall have any individual liability for any of our obligations, covenants or agreements under the debt securities or the indenture.

 

Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or traded separate and apart from these securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a warrant agreement all as set forth in the prospectus supplement. A copy of the form of warrant agreement, including any form of warrant certificates representing the warrants, reflecting the provisions to be included in the warrant agreements and/or warrant certificates that will be entered into with respect to particular offerings of warrants, will be filed as an exhibit to a Form 8-K to be incorporated into the registration statement of which this prospectus constitutes a part prior to the issuance of any warrants.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet will describe the terms of the warrants offered thereby, any warrant agreement relating to such warrants and the warrant certificates, including but not limited to the following:

 

 

·

the offering price or prices;

 

·

the aggregate amount of securities that may be purchased upon exercise of such warrants and minimum number of warrants that are exercisable;

 

·

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

·

the number of securities, if any, with which such warrants are being offered and the number of such warrants being offered with each security;

 

·

the date on and after which such warrants and the related securities, if any, will be transferable separately;

 

·

the amount of securities purchasable upon exercise of each warrant and the price at which the securities may be purchased upon such exercise, and events or conditions under which the amount of securities may be subject to adjustment;

 

·

the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

·

the circumstances, if any, which will cause the warrants to be deemed to be automatically exercised;

 

·

any material risk factors, if any, relating to such warrants;

 

·

the identity of any warrant agent; and

 

·

any other terms of such warrants (which shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of the warrant agreement).

 

 
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Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase a principal amount of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities at an exercise price as shall in each case be set forth in, or calculable from, the prospectus supplement relating to those warrants. Warrants may be exercised at the times set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such warrants. After the close of business on the expiration date (or any later date to which the expiration date may be extended by us), unexercised warrants will become void. Subject to any restrictions and additional requirements that may be set forth in the prospectus supplement relating thereto, warrants may be exercised by delivery to the Company or its warrant agent of the certificate evidencing the warrants properly completed and duly executed and of payment as provided in the prospectus supplement of the amount required to purchase the debt securities or shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, or depositary shares purchasable upon such exercise. The exercise price will be the price applicable on the date of payment in full, as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants. Upon receipt of the payment and the certificate representing the warrants to be exercised properly completed, duly executed and properly delivered as indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the debt securities or shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by that certificate are exercised, a new certificate will be issued for the remaining amount of warrants.

 

Prior to the exercise of any warrants, holders of such warrants will not have any rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including the right to receive payments of dividends, if any, on the securities purchasable upon such exercise, statutory appraisal rights or the right to vote such underlying securities.

 

 Prospective purchasers of warrants should be aware that material U.S. federal income tax, accounting and other considerations may be applicable to instruments such as warrants.

 

 
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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

 

We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and for us to sell to holders, a specific or variable number of our shares of common stock or preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or warrants, or debt obligations of an entity unaffiliated with us, or any combination of the above, at a future date or dates. Alternatively, the purchase contracts may obligate us to purchase from holders, and obligate holders to sell to us, a specific or variable number of our shares of common stock or preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants or other property, or any combination of the above. The price of the securities or other property subject to the purchase contracts may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula described in the purchase contracts. We may issue purchase contracts separately or as a part of units each consisting of a purchase contract and one or more of our other securities described in this prospectus or debt obligations of third parties, including U.S. Treasury securities, securing the holder’s obligations under the purchase contract. The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to holders or vice versa and the payments may be unsecured or pre-funded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure the holder’s obligations in a manner specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any purchase contracts in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, to the extent applicable, the following:

 

 

·

whether the purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;

 

·

whether the purchase contracts are to be prepaid;

 

·

whether the purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract;

 

·

any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the purchase contracts;

 

·

any applicable U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

 

 

 

·

whether the purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form.

 

To the extent any purchase contract relates to third party debt obligations, we will comply with the registration and disclosure requirements of the Securities Act and any other applicable rules and regulations and will include disclosure as necessary in the applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, including, as necessary, any required financial statement and non-financial statement disclosure about the issuer of such third party debt obligations.

 

The preceding description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the purchase contracts to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the purchase contracts to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the purchase contracts so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the purchase contracts described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described above, then the terms described above will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable purchase contract for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our purchase contracts.

 

 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

 

 

·

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

·

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

·

any additional terms of the governing unit agreement.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any units.

 

 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities offered by this prospectus in any one or more of the following ways from time to time:

 

 

·

directly to investors, including through a specific bidding, auction or other process;

 

·

to investors through agents;

 

·

directly to agents;

 

·

to or through brokers or dealers;

 

·

to the public through underwriting syndicates led by one or more managing underwriters;

 

·

to one or more underwriters acting alone for resale to investors or to the public; and

 

·

through a combination of any such methods of sale.

 

We may also sell and distribute the securities offered by this prospectus from time to time in one or more transactions, including in “at the market offerings” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise.

 

The accompanying prospectus supplement will set forth the terms of the offering and the method of distribution and will identify any firms acting as underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering, including:

 

 

·

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;

 

·

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds to us from the sale;

 

·

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

·

any underwriting discounts and other items constituting compensation to underwriters, dealers or agents;

 

·

any public offering price;

 

·

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

·

any securities exchange or market on which the securities offered in the prospectus supplement may be listed.

 

 
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Only those underwriters identified in such prospectus supplement are deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities offered in the prospectus supplement. Any underwritten offering may be on a best efforts or a firm commitment basis.

 

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, at varying prices determined at the time of sale, or at prices determined as the applicable prospectus supplement specifies. The securities may be sold through a rights offering, forward contracts or similar arrangements. In any distribution of subscription rights to stockholders, if all of the underlying securities are not subscribed for, we may then sell the unsubscribed securities directly to third parties or may engage the services of one or more underwriters, dealers or agents, including standby underwriters, to sell the unsubscribed securities to third parties.

  

In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters, dealers or agents may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and also may receive commissions from securities purchasers for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

 

We will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any underwriting discounts or other compensation that we pay to underwriters or agents in connection with the securities offering, and any discounts, concessions or commissions which underwriters allow to dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the securities distribution may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions they receive and any profit they realize on the resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. Underwriters and their controlling persons, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification against and contribution toward specific civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the related prospectus supplement, each series of securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than shares of common stock, which are listed on the Nasdaq. Any common stock sold pursuant to a prospectus supplement will be listed on the Nasdaq, subject to official notice of issuance. We may elect to list any series of debt securities, preferred stock or depositary shares on an exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in the securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of, or the trading market for, any offered securities.

 

In connection with an offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell securities in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, stabilizing transactions and purchases to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of securities than they are required to purchase in an offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of bids or purchases made for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the securities while an offering is in progress. The underwriters also may impose a penalty bid. This occurs when a particular underwriter repays to the underwriters a portion of the underwriting discount received by it because the underwriters have repurchased securities sold by or for the account of that underwriter in stabilizing or short-covering transactions. These activities by the underwriters may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the securities. As a result, the price of the securities may be higher than the price that otherwise might exist in the open market. If these activities are commenced, they may be discontinued by the underwriters at any time. Underwriters may engage in overallotment. If any underwriters create a short position in the securities in an offering in which they sell more securities than are set forth on the cover page of the applicable prospectus supplement, the underwriters may reduce that short position by purchasing the securities in the open market.

 

Underwriters, dealers or agents that participate in the offer of securities, or their affiliates or associates, may have engaged or engage in transactions with and perform services for, us or our affiliates in the ordinary course of business for which they may have received or receive customary fees and reimbursement of expenses.

 

 
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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Certain legal matters in connection with the offered depositary shares, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts and units will be passed upon for us by Hogan Lovells US LLP, Denver, Colorado. Certain legal matters with respect to the offered common stock and preferred stock and with respect to Nevada corporate law will be passed upon for us by Gary R. Henrie, Esq., Las Vegas, Nevada. The legality of the securities for any underwriters, dealers or agents will be passed upon by counsel as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2017 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

 

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